Under the Radar

101: Anchoring vs. Simplicity


00:00:00   Welcome to Under the Radar, a show about independent iOS app development.

00:00:04   I'm Marco Arment.

00:00:05   And I'm David Smith.

00:00:06   Under the Radar is never longer than 30 minutes, so let's get started.

00:00:10   So today's episode, the topic for it sort of came from, as I think many of the best

00:00:16   topics for this show do, came from an experience I had this week, and something that I thought

00:00:21   was worth trying to unpack and trying to find a general lesson from.

00:00:25   And the specific experience that I ran into is probably about maybe three or four weeks

00:00:32   ago, I launched a relatively large update to Pedometer++.

00:00:36   I think I mentioned some of the details about it on the show.

00:00:39   It added badges, and I did some visual refreshing.

00:00:43   But one of the things I also did as part of this, as part of my visual redesigns, is I

00:00:49   changed the way that the tip jar in the app worked.

00:00:52   So Pedometer++ is a free app, it has ads in it, and then it has in the settings area,

00:00:57   there's a tip jar area that basically is the, "Hey, would you like to support the app?

00:01:04   Give me a little bit of money."

00:01:06   And if you do, A, it's just a nice thing, and people have an opportunity to support

00:01:12   the app directly in kind of more of a less aggressive way.

00:01:16   And then it will also remove the ads as well.

00:01:19   And I used to have three different sort of like buckets that you could choose from for

00:01:25   giving me a tip.

00:01:26   I think they were, I had a 99 cents, I had $1.99, and I think I had one that was $3.99

00:01:33   or $4.99.

00:01:36   And sort of increasing in size.

00:01:38   And the reason I had originally structured it that way was this general vague sort of

00:01:44   like business advice that I remember hearing in a podcast somewhere or reading in a book

00:01:47   somewhere that was talking about anchoring and about, you know, talking about, "Oh, you

00:01:51   know, why do they have like the extra super large soda at McDonald's?"

00:01:56   And it's like, well, the reason you have these extra, these sort of these bigger things is

00:02:00   to not necessarily sell more extra large SuperGulp, but is to increase, you know, sort of move

00:02:07   people up the line because people are sort of more tend to be afraid of the extremes.

00:02:12   So, you know, they would rather be somewhere in the middle.

00:02:15   And also, it has an anchoring effect where, you know, in this case, if I, one of the tips

00:02:21   is $5, and then the other one is 99 cents, and then the one in the middle is $1.99, you

00:02:27   know, the $1.99 standing next to the, you know, the $4.99 or whatever feels a bit smaller.

00:02:33   And so it has these could potentially in theory, have this sort of this positive psychological

00:02:38   effect.

00:02:39   Or at least that's what I told myself.

00:02:40   I didn't really, it's kind of one of those things where it's this vague sort of notion

00:02:43   that I remember hearing and reading and so I tried it.

00:02:45   And it had been that way for years since I first introduced the tip jar.

00:02:50   But in this update, I kind of had this feeling that like, I didn't like the design of it

00:02:54   visually, I thought it was a little bit complicated.

00:02:57   And also, there was some things I needed to do where there's a sort of a requirement now

00:03:02   where you have to be able to restore purchases for thing, any restore a purchase for anything

00:03:10   that has an actual effect.

00:03:12   So if it was just a straight up tip, you wouldn't necessarily need to restore purchases.

00:03:15   But in this case, I needed to make it a bit more simple and straightforward to make sure

00:03:22   App Review was happy.

00:03:23   And so I just dropped the two extremes.

00:03:26   I got rid of the lowest and the highest tip value.

00:03:28   And there's just a button now that says, you know, it's like, would you like to, you know,

00:03:32   put $1.99 in the tip jar.

00:03:36   And something interesting happened as a result of making this change.

00:03:40   The total revenue that I received from tips in the app, now, and especially I can tell

00:03:46   this now the story now because it thinks have settled down, you know, initially, there's

00:03:50   a nice spike, when there's a new update, you know, people tend to be a bit more generous

00:03:54   with their tipping right after an update, it seems, but things have settled down now.

00:03:58   And the result is that I make now about 20% more from tips than I did previously than

00:04:04   I did throughout, you know, so sort of the running average for the last few years even.

00:04:08   You know, it's now this substantial sort of step up, even though I've removed the top

00:04:15   option.

00:04:16   And it seemed like an interesting lesson to unpack here where I feel like it's so easy

00:04:21   as somebody who comes from a non business background.

00:04:27   Like I enjoy listening to I listen to a lot of business podcasts and things like that,

00:04:32   just for the purposes of trying to flesh this out, you know, sort of in my experience, but

00:04:38   I don't come from a background where this is the kind of thing that I would have studied

00:04:41   or been taught.

00:04:42   And so I'm just kind of making it up as I go along.

00:04:45   And it's easy, I something sometimes to somewhat blindly follow this kind of general advice

00:04:51   that I in my mind, it's like, well, some fancy business person said that this is the way

00:04:56   that you do it.

00:04:57   Like, if you want to maximize the number of people who are buying the middle one, you

00:05:00   need to put something you know, smaller below it and bigger above it.

00:05:04   And that's where they'll go.

00:05:06   In this case, it turned out that wasn't the case.

00:05:08   And if I hadn't sort of tried to follow this advice that the reality is I probably don't

00:05:13   fully understand, I may have been making 20% more all this time.

00:05:18   And so that seemed like something that was worth kind of dealing with.

00:05:21   And it has made me start to think about are there any other kinds of advice that I sort

00:05:26   of take and use without really probably fully understanding.

00:05:31   When it comes to business advice for pricing or marketing or positioning or things like

00:05:38   that, this kind of topic, I think it's important to consider a few caveats to everything.

00:05:44   Number one, you don't need any qualifications to write a business book.

00:05:48   Anybody can write these books or these blog posts or these medium essays and they don't

00:05:55   necessarily know what they're talking about.

00:05:58   So disclaimer number one is take everything with a grain of salt because anybody could

00:06:02   have written it.

00:06:03   - Including our advice.

00:06:04   - Including our advice, yes, this applies to us as well.

00:06:07   Disclaimer number two is that a lot of the popular business theories out there are exactly

00:06:15   that, theories.

00:06:16   They aren't necessarily proven by data all the time and so it's hard sometimes to know

00:06:24   what is being explained by how people think it works versus what actually does work.

00:06:28   And the biggest caveat number three is that different things work for different apps in

00:06:33   different markets and different products.

00:06:35   So all these theories and books and everything, they might be great, they might be perfectly

00:06:40   valid for selling, the classic example of selling widgets from a factory.

00:06:45   If you're selling a premium product that you're making physically, then that's a different

00:06:51   story from if you're selling an app on the app store or an in-app purchase for something

00:06:55   within an app in the app store.

00:06:57   These product types work so differently and the markets they sell to and the factors involved

00:07:02   are all so different.

00:07:05   And even within one of these factors, even if you say, "Alright, within the market of

00:07:10   in-app purchases in iPhone apps," which is somewhat narrow I guess compared to the whole

00:07:16   world of how you could possibly make money in business.

00:07:19   But even within that, there are huge differences.

00:07:22   What type of app are you making this purchase in?

00:07:25   What does the purchase do?

00:07:27   Why would the person buy it?

00:07:29   Those things vary wildly.

00:07:31   You have a tip jar in a pedometer app that doesn't really do much of anything except

00:07:36   remove an ad, so it's more of a goodwill kind of thing or for people who really hate ads

00:07:40   and are willing to pay to remove them.

00:07:42   That's very different from buying yourself a new bomb in the game that you just invested

00:07:47   six hours in and your brain is telling you, "Oh my god, just keep going at whatever cost.

00:07:50   I have to get through this next level.

00:07:52   Buy the bomb."

00:07:53   These are completely different mindsets and psychologies that go into these purchases

00:07:59   and so they have to be met with totally different approaches.

00:08:02   Any advice you hear or read out there might be about one thing and it might be perfectly

00:08:07   valid for one thing, but that might be completely different from what you are doing in your

00:08:12   app or in your product or in your store.

00:08:15   Everything has to be taken with a grain of salt and when possible and when practical,

00:08:20   the best approach is usually to just try stuff like you usually do, unlike you did here because

00:08:26   nothing will show you more than just trying it, whether something will work for you or

00:08:31   not.

00:08:32   That isn't always practical though.

00:08:34   Changing the way you make money, changing your pricing, changing the way purchases are

00:08:38   set up or are displayed or are marketed.

00:08:42   In some cases you can tweak things a little bit here and there and see results fairly

00:08:45   quickly without much effort, but in some cases changing these things or trying something

00:08:49   else takes massive effort, takes massive setup.

00:08:54   Sometimes you risk angering your customers if you change things more than zero to two

00:08:59   times in a short time.

00:09:03   Sometimes it's hard to experiment with these things, but when possible and when it's relatively

00:09:09   easy to experiment, I highly suggest that you do so because nothing is better than just

00:09:15   trying it in order to get data on what works and what doesn't.

00:09:19   >> Yeah.

00:09:20   I think that experimentation part is the thing that in this case I'm kind of kicking myself

00:09:26   that I didn't do because it's so often something that I do do, that I've tried so many different

00:09:34   things.

00:09:35   I do lots of different apps.

00:09:36   I tend to have a fairly experimental approach.

00:09:38   In this case, I just kind of found something that kind of worked and it worked well enough

00:09:45   and because it worked well enough, I just kind of went with it.

00:09:48   I feel like that is probably also something to be on the lookout for, of something where

00:09:52   it's like if it works a little bit, because say you followed some advice and it seems

00:09:58   to be working a little bit, it's still being circumspect about it and deciding, "Did it

00:10:04   work a little bit because of the advice you got and if you hadn't followed that advice,

00:10:09   it would have kind of all fallen apart and not worked at all?"

00:10:14   Or is that just like the base level and there's still a lot of room for improvement or opportunity

00:10:18   there that you could take advantage of by experimenting a little bit, by trying different

00:10:24   things?

00:10:26   And I mean, keeping in mind that I think it's easy to be a little bit too scared of trying

00:10:30   things out, but then of course I come back and I think about Overcast and I think about

00:10:34   its history and the number of different business models and the number of different approaches

00:10:38   that you've tried in that and there's certainly been bumps in that, but the reality

00:10:41   is like overall it seems like people adapt and move with it so that as long as you have

00:10:48   a sort of a clear story at any one time, people will move with you as you explore and adapt

00:10:55   to things and don't be too worried about trying too many different options.

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00:12:53   So I wanted to talk a little bit about my experience with this is somewhat similar.

00:12:59   When I took Overcast to the auto-renewing subscription model about a little over a year

00:13:06   ago now, I made a decision to simplify things.

00:13:08   So before that, Overcast had, for a couple years before that, it had a voluntary subscription

00:13:15   that you could opt into for various small benefits.

00:13:19   And then later I added ads and the subscription would give you the option to remove the ads

00:13:24   as well.

00:13:26   And so last year, I changed the subscription from non-renewing, just like the single purchase

00:13:33   of you'll buy a three-month interval or a six-month interval or a 12-month interval

00:13:37   to an auto-renewing subscription.

00:13:39   Auto-renewing subscriptions used to be a lot worse.

00:13:41   I actually read a blog post a few years ago when I was using Instapaper for them, or using

00:13:46   them with Instapaper rather, that I basically said auto-renewing subscriptions are not recommended

00:13:50   because they were really a pain to implement and maintain back then.

00:13:54   They have gotten better, I wouldn't say massively better, but they are better now.

00:13:59   And now they come with the additional benefit of if somebody stays subscribed for more than

00:14:04   a year, your subsequent years after year one for that person net you 85% of the revenue

00:14:11   instead of 70%.

00:14:12   So you basically get a raise and it is a way to keep more of your money in the App Store

00:14:16   than any other method.

00:14:18   So that's really nice.

00:14:20   So now I would say if you're using subscriptions, auto-renewing has improved enough and has

00:14:25   enough of that upside with the 85% on year two and up that I do recommend auto-renewing

00:14:30   subscriptions now for things where that makes sense.

00:14:34   So anyway, for years, and the same thing applied to Instapaper, I had three options.

00:14:40   I had three, six, and 12 month subscription buying.

00:14:44   And I did this for much of the same reason that you were talking about with things like

00:14:48   anchoring, also, and I apologize to anybody who is an econ or business major or certified

00:14:57   person, I apologize if we are mangling or oversimplifying any of these terms.

00:15:03   Most of this I learned from econ 101 or blog posts.

00:15:07   So I apologize in advance.

00:15:09   But one of the things I was trying to do with these options was to capture the consumer

00:15:15   surplus, which is an econ 101 term, I hope you're using it right.

00:15:20   - Fancy.

00:15:21   - Yeah, where basically different people are willing and able to pay different amounts.

00:15:26   And so what you ideally want to do is have multiple tiers of products or services so

00:15:32   that the people who can't or won't spend a lot of money, they have a nice inexpensive

00:15:36   option.

00:15:37   So there's some kind of middle thing for middle people, and then there's an expensive option

00:15:42   that people who really want to and are able to give you a lot of money, give them a way

00:15:46   to do that.

00:15:47   If you just charge the same amount of money for one option for everybody, there's only

00:15:52   one price, one option, you're gonna lose people on the bottom end who can't or won't pay that

00:15:56   price.

00:15:57   And the people on the top end who would have paid more, you're missing out on potential

00:16:01   money you could have made by having some way to charge them more.

00:16:05   That's the theory.

00:16:06   In practice, there's all sorts of complexity that goes into trying to implement some kind

00:16:11   of thing where you're trying to have products at every price point and everything.

00:16:14   See the iPad lineup for an example of this.

00:16:18   There's all sorts of complexity and downsides to it.

00:16:21   But the general idea is sound.

00:16:23   It is nice to have multiple options to charge different people.

00:16:26   The problem is there's also a pretty widely thought and probably backed up by data theory

00:16:35   that you will make more money in things like computer based checkouts or phone based checkouts.

00:16:40   You'll make more money the easier it is for people to pay you.

00:16:43   And the fewer steps are involved in doing that and the fewer decisions are involved

00:16:46   in doing that.

00:16:48   Because if someone's thinking, "Hey, you know what?

00:16:49   I might want to pay for this thing."

00:16:51   The more interruptions you present to that process, the more barriers you put up, the

00:16:55   more likely it is that they're just gonna say, "Yeah, you know what?

00:16:59   Forget it.

00:17:00   I'll come back to this later."

00:17:01   Or, "You know what?

00:17:02   I don't care that much.

00:17:03   I don't want to go through all this.

00:17:04   Forget it."

00:17:05   You don't want to present them with too many choices or barriers or options or reasons

00:17:12   to doubt their purchase before they commit and say, "All right.

00:17:15   Do it.

00:17:16   Buy it."

00:17:17   It's a tricky balance between trying to have different plans for different price points

00:17:21   to capture more of that consumer surplus or trying to keep things simple.

00:17:26   So what I decided to do for years and years, I had those three different intervals, three,

00:17:30   six, and 12 months.

00:17:31   There was actually no discount.

00:17:33   The 12 month price was just four times more expensive than the three month price and six

00:17:37   months was in the middle.

00:17:40   There was no gain to doing that.

00:17:42   But I did find that the 12 month, which I expected to sell the least, was actually the

00:17:48   top grossing item.

00:17:51   Whenever I would have those three, six, and 12 month options in both Instapaper and in

00:17:55   previous versions of Overcast, 12 month was always top grossing.

00:17:59   Three month was second and nobody bought the six.

00:18:03   And it was that way since the beginning of Instapaper until I eventually, after I sold

00:18:09   it, I think they transitioned to an auto renewing subscription model shortly after that or maybe

00:18:12   it was, maybe Vinay did it.

00:18:14   I don't even remember it so long ago.

00:18:16   But when there were those three options, three sold the most volume, six didn't sell much

00:18:21   of anything, and 12 was by far the top grossing.

00:18:25   And what I learned from that was that my users were pretty loyal and that people who would

00:18:29   pay for this kind of thing at all would pay for the high one pretty often and certainly

00:18:33   often enough that it could have been the only option.

00:18:36   It was also an awkward price because my price was $12 a year.

00:18:40   It was $1 a month.

00:18:42   So it was $11.99 in the app store.

00:18:45   And the app store, I think economically, I think a lot of people might balk at a two

00:18:50   digit dollar figure in US dollars.

00:18:53   There's a lot of price psychology that goes into pricing things that's gone back forever

00:18:58   where people end prices in 99 instead of rounding up to the next dollar.

00:19:02   So you'll have like $9.99 instead of $10 because the theory is that that sounds better and

00:19:08   people will buy it whereas $10 sounds like a lot because it's double digits.

00:19:12   That kind of theory, and again, this is all backed by decades and decades of theory that

00:19:18   might necessarily not be based on a lot of data.

00:19:21   So I apologize if any of this is totally wrong in practice.

00:19:23   But anyway, so when it came time to switch to auto renewing for overcast, what I decided

00:19:29   to do was only have the one year option.

00:19:34   And this was both to keep it simple, to try to guide more people in through it to say

00:19:38   like alright, if I keep it simple, then there's fewer barriers, fewer decisions to make, and

00:19:43   more people will subscribe.

00:19:45   Also I wanted people to kind of commit.

00:19:48   If you have a cheap option and an expensive option, then a lot of people obviously are

00:19:53   going to pick the cheap one.

00:19:55   And I'm like, you know, am I better off having fewer people but having more of them picking

00:20:01   the most expensive one year option than if I have the spread of options where that I'm

00:20:08   losing some of the possible high end.

00:20:11   And I thought too with auto renewing, the auto renewing suggestion is going to bother

00:20:15   people once a year with an email from Apple saying hey, this is about to renew.

00:20:20   And every time it renews, those people get that email, they have a chance to say you

00:20:26   know what, never mind, I don't want this.

00:20:29   And I know I'm going to lose people every time it renews.

00:20:34   Hopefully I'm staying ahead with net subscribers.

00:20:36   But every time it renews, I'm going to lose people.

00:20:38   So my theory is why don't I make it renew as infrequently as possible so that way there

00:20:44   are fewer times per year when people will either get upset that they forgot to cancel

00:20:50   it or that they will be reminded to cancel it and they'll get that email that basically

00:20:55   reminded them hey, you might want to cancel this every time they get this email.

00:20:58   So having a once a year option was my theory for maximizing that.

00:21:04   And I also, rather than having once a year at $11.99, I decided to take advantage of

00:21:11   that price rounding theory or behavior and just drop it to $9.99 for one year.

00:21:19   And that's the only option I offer.

00:21:21   And I've even gone through in different countries where the exchange rate was such that it would

00:21:27   push it a little bit above some round number like $11.99, Great British Pound or something

00:21:32   like that.

00:21:34   I've gone through and you can edit prices per territory with auto renewing subscriptions

00:21:39   now.

00:21:40   I'm not going to go through all the overall in-app purchases but you can do that with

00:21:42   subscriptions now.

00:21:43   So I went through and basically anything that was near a boundary, I lowered it back down

00:21:47   below that boundary.

00:21:48   So it's $9.99 pounds, $9.99 US dollars, $9.99 Canadian dollars, Australian, all the amounts

00:21:56   that are kind of close, I would drop them down.

00:21:57   So it's all one unified price because I have the luxury with this in-app purchase which

00:22:02   a lot of people do for their in-app purchases where there is no physical product that I'm

00:22:07   transferring here.

00:22:08   There's no real cost to what I'm offering.

00:22:10   So I can offer the in-app purchase at pretty much arbitrary prices.

00:22:14   It's pretty much like I would like people to pay me some money.

00:22:18   It doesn't really matter within a certain range how much money they're paying me.

00:22:25   I would rather have people paying me something per year than nothing per year.

00:22:31   So that also applies to different regions where money is worth different amounts.

00:22:36   So you go to places where $10 US sounds really expensive.

00:22:42   So places like China, Russia, India, you can go to these places and you can lower your

00:22:47   prices dramatically.

00:22:48   So I would go to some of these regions where the prices seemed higher by comparison and

00:22:55   cut the price in half or something like that, really cut it down.

00:22:59   So the theory being, again, I'd rather have some money than no money from people who live

00:23:03   here and who see the price in a certain way because of the exchange rate.

00:23:07   So all those strategies so far seem to have worked very, very well.

00:23:12   And by simplifying the offering from three options to one, I also have seen, because

00:23:17   even though I cut the price slightly from $12 to $10 a year, I've made it up both in

00:23:23   additional purchases because it's been an easier flow and also the 85% on year two.

00:23:29   So so far, I'm very happy with my arrangement as well.

00:23:32   Yeah, and I feel like there's such an element in this of we can optimize for the wrong thing

00:23:39   sometimes.

00:23:42   What you're doing there is you're making it simpler for everybody and understanding that

00:23:48   having some amount of revenue from any...

00:23:54   Any non-zero paying customer is a massive win, and your goal is to maximize those.

00:24:02   In that case, you just want to optimize to bring in as many of those people as you can.

00:24:09   And there may be other variables or things that we just have to be okay with ignoring

00:24:13   or with not optimizing for.

00:24:16   But overall, it's often, in your case, it works out great where it comes out overall

00:24:20   better.

00:24:21   And even if it didn't come out overall strictly better, there is still an advantage to the

00:24:26   super simple, easy to explain, easy to understand business model that isn't one of these things

00:24:33   where you're creating these barriers and any amount of confusion.

00:24:38   Because the reality too is, I'm thinking, is we don't have the luxury of sophisticated

00:24:44   or complicated marketing materials or opportunities to communicate extensively with our customers.

00:24:51   Like, that's just not something that we have the ability to do, where maybe this kind of

00:24:58   a situation would be a bit easier to have multiple tiers or to have more complicated

00:25:04   pricing.

00:25:05   Because typically the reality is, when pricing gets complicated, if you go to buy something

00:25:12   and the pricing isn't straightforward, it's usually because they're finding some way to

00:25:18   just squeeze a little bit more out of you.

00:25:20   It's not because they're trying to make your life easier as a customer.

00:25:24   They're trying to make their bottom line better as a business.

00:25:29   And so, in some ways, I also kind of just like the feeling of, from a customer goodwill

00:25:35   perspective, making it straightforward for them.

00:25:38   Presenting someone with a simple, straightforward option, it's like, "Would you like to support

00:25:43   this app?" or "Would you like to add these features?" or whatever it is.

00:25:46   It's like, "Yes or no."

00:25:47   And it's a simple choice, and if they decide no, great.

00:25:51   It's like, that's fine.

00:25:53   You hopefully will make it up from just the breadth of your user base.

00:25:56   But if yes, then great.

00:25:58   Like here, just push this button, we're done.

00:26:00   And there's not anything more to it, because I think the reality is it's hard enough to

00:26:05   get people to the point of even considering it.

00:26:08   The last thing I'm going to do is probably make that a hard choice for them.

00:26:13   Yeah, and that's very, very smart, because again, the one business theory that seems

00:26:19   to be most supported and least arguable is when you make it easy, when you remove barriers,

00:26:25   when you remove options, people tend to buy more frequently.

00:26:29   And so, anything you can do to simplify it also simplifies other things.

00:26:33   Simplifies your app, your backend that's tracking all this, your reporting, any kind of analytics

00:26:39   you're doing on what leads to sales and everything.

00:26:43   And also press.

00:26:45   When the press talks about your app, if you're lucky enough to get press, it's a lot easier

00:26:50   if the story that they can tell people is as simple as, "Yeah, the app is free,"

00:26:55   or whatever, but then you pay $10 a year if you want these things, or $5 one time if you

00:26:59   want these things.

00:27:00   That's a much simpler story than, "Oh, the app has these six different plans that

00:27:06   you can shoot between."

00:27:07   And it's like, how many people are gonna look at those six different plans and just

00:27:12   say, "You know what, nevermind, I gotta do more research, I'll deal with this later."

00:27:15   And sometimes they'll even be less happy, like if you pick the wrong level of something,

00:27:20   then it introduces the chance that they'll be less happy with their purchase afterwards,

00:27:23   'cause they wonder, "Oh, maybe I should've picked the other thing, maybe they'll

00:27:27   regret what they did."

00:27:28   And when you have just fewer options, you do lose that consumer surplus capture on some

00:27:35   degree, but you also have so many other benefits that it is definitely worth considering, and

00:27:40   if possible, trying for your app.

00:27:42   - Yeah, and I think too, in general, and the more I was thinking about this topic in preparation

00:27:48   for the show, I kept thinking of examples of general business advice.

00:27:55   And the somewhat amusing thing is for any situation that I thought of something, I almost

00:28:00   always could think of a completely contradictory bit of advice that corresponds to it.

00:28:06   Like in this case, there's the, you can capture maximum consumer surplus by having

00:28:12   a tiered system with anchoring, so on and so on, fancy words.

00:28:17   Or on the flip side, there's the paradox of choice and saying if you present people

00:28:22   with too many choices, then the most likely choice they will make is no choice.

00:28:27   Or you could say the customer's always right as this general adage, or you could say on

00:28:32   the flip side that opinionated design is better.

00:28:37   There's always this tension, I think, between these, for anything, there's always a complete

00:28:43   opposite bit of advice that you could just as easily latch onto and take with you.

00:28:48   And so in closing, what I was thinking about saying is it's just like, I think the most

00:28:53   important thing for us as we're developing our applications is A, if one of those choices

00:28:57   is, if you have these competing bits of advice, choose the one that is simplest, that is easiest,

00:29:03   that is going to, that you understand the most, is probably always going to end up better

00:29:10   for you than just trying to do something that is more sophisticated, more complicated.

00:29:18   Maybe there is some theoretical benefit that you may be not taking advantage of by doing

00:29:23   that.

00:29:24   If it's not simpler is better, doing something that is going to make you happy is better,

00:29:30   and if you just do those things, then maybe that's just the best advice at all.

00:29:34   Just keep it simple, do something you enjoy, and you'll end up better off than trying to

00:29:39   do something complicated that you don't like.

00:29:41   I think you've written the shortest business book ever.

00:29:44   There you go.

00:29:45   Thanks for listening, everybody, and we'll talk to you next week.

00:29:47   Bye.

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